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Quantitative research simply deals with numbers. It is the process of collecting and analyzing numerical data. With the help of quantitative data, we find averages, standard deviation, and patterns, test causal relationships to eventually make predictions and generalize the results to the broader population.


Quantitative research templates are objective, elaborate, and many times, even investigational. The results achieved from this research method are logical, statistical, and unbiased. Data collection happens using a structured method and is conducted on larger samples that represent the entire population.


While conducting any quantitative research, one should keep the objective of the study clear, differentiate between quantitative and qualitative data, and choose a sample size that represents the entire population.

There are two methods to conduct quantitative research:

  • Primary quantitative research methods- where the researcher collects data directly instead of using existing data already collected by other researchers/ agencies.

  • Secondary quantitative research methods- involve collecting quantitative data from existing data sources like the internet, government resources, libraries, research reports, etc. It helps to validate the data that is collected from primary quantitative research as well as aid in strengthening or proving or disproving previously collected data.

Steps of primary quantitative research:

  1. Selecting technique and type of study- There are multiple types of primary quantitative research like survey method, correlational research, casual comparative research, and experimental research. The most appropriate type has to be selected.

  2. Selecting data collection methodology- choosing between probability sampling and nonprobability sampling. 

  3. Selecting data analysis technique- data analysis methods relevant to the research have to be chosen from SWOT, Conjoint Analysis, Cross Tabulation, TURF Analysis


Popularly used secondary quantitative research methods:

  1. Data available on the internet

  2. Government and non-government sources that deal with market research reports

  3. Public libraries

  4. Research conducted by educational institutions

  5. Commercial information sources

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Qualitative research is a market research method that focuses on obtaining data through open-ended and conversational communication. This method is not only about “what” people think but also “why” they think so. Qualitative research is based on the disciplines of social sciences like psychology, sociology, and anthropology. The results of qualitative methods are more descriptive and the inferences can be drawn quite easily from the data that is obtained. Qualitative research methods originated in the social and behavioral sciences.


Qualitative research methods are designed in a manner that helps reveal the behavior and perception of a target audience with reference to a particular topic. There are different types of qualitative research methods:


  • One-on-one interview:


It is a one-on-one interview with a single responder. This is just a conversational strategy that allows you to elicit more information from the subject. These interviews can be conducted in person or over the phone and can span anywhere from half an hour to two hours or more. When an in-depth interview is performed face to face, it is easier to interpret the respondents' body language and match their comments.


  • Focus groups:


A focus group generally consists of a small number of people (6-10) from the target market. The primary goal of the focus group is to obtain answers to the questions "why," "what," and "how." Focus groups may now be delivered an online survey on a variety of devices, and replies can be gathered with a single click. They're usually used to describe complicated procedures. This strategy is extremely effective for market research on new items and idea testing.


  • Ethnographic research:


Ethnographic research is the most comprehensive observational approach for studying people in their natural surroundings. This strategy demands researchers to adapt to the settings of their target audiences, which might range from an organisation to a city or any distant place. While collecting data, geographic limits may be a concern. The goal of this study is to learn about the cultures, difficulties, motives, and contexts that arise. You experience the natural environment firsthand rather than counting on interviews and conversations.


  • Case study research:


Over the last few years, the case study approach has matured into a significant qualitative research tool. As the name implies, it is used to explain an organisation or entity. It is one of the simplest methods of research because it involves detailed research and comprehension of data collecting methodologies as well as data inference.


  • Record keeping:


The data source for this strategy is previously existing reputable documents and comparable sources of information. This information can be utilised in future studies. It's akin to visiting a library.


Descriptive research is a study that is used to evaluate a population's characteristics. Descriptive research does not provide answers to queries about why something happens or what causes it. Data from descriptive research, on the other hand, maybe utilised to investigate the associations (correlations) between variables. While correlational analysis findings do not prove causation, they can assist discriminate between factors that are significant in explaining a phenomenon and those that are not. As a result, descriptive research is frequently used to create ideas that need to be tested using more rigorous research methods.


Descriptive research is a type of quantitative study that aims to gather measurable data for statistical analysis of a population sample. None of the

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variables in descriptive research are impacted in any manner. The research is carried out using observational approaches. A cross-sectional study is one in which different portions of the same group are investigated. Researchers use many research approaches to further investigate the data acquired and processed via descriptive research. The information can also indicate the sorts of research methodologies that will be employed in the future.

Applications of descriptive research

  • Define respondent characteristics: Close-ended inquiries are used to make specific inferences about the responses. This might be due to the necessity to deduce the respondents' patterns, attributes, and habits.

  • Measure data trends: Researchers measure data trends over time with a descriptive research design’s statistical capabilities. 

  • Conduct comparisons: Organizations also use a descriptive research design to analyse how different groups respond to a specific product or service. 

  • Conduct research at different times: To see whether there are any parallels or differences, the analysis might be done at different times.


Descriptive research methods

  • Observational method:

A quantitative observation is the systematic gathering of data that is primarily concerned with numbers and values. "Associated with, of, or portrayed in terms of an amount," it says. Statistical and numerical analytic methods are used to derive the results of quantitative observation. It entails the observation of any entity with a numerical value, such as age, form, weight, and so on.


  • Case study method:

Case studies entail extensive research and investigation of people or groups. Case studies lead to a theory and broaden the scope of a phenomenon's investigation. Case studies, on the other hand, should not be used to determine cause and effect since they cannot make accurate predictions due to the researcher's bias.


  • Survey research:

Respondents react to surveys, questionnaires, or polls in survey research. They're a common way to get input from respondents in market research. The correct survey questions are essential for gathering valuable data in a study. There should be a good mix of open-ended and closed-ended questions.

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